TODO: Self-organization

"folksonomyies are self-organized systems."
-- Emergent Semantics Principles and Issues. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Database Systems for Advanced Applications.

self-organization from wikipedia

Self-organization is a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases in complexity without being guided or managed by an outside source.


Self-organization in mathematics and computer science

As mentioned above, phenomena from mathematics and computer science such as cellular automata, random graphs, and some instances of evolutionary computation and artificial life exhibit features of self-organization. In swarm robotics, self-organization is used to produce emergent behavior.

In particular the theory of random graphs has been used as a justification for self-organization as a general principle of complex systems.

Self-organization in human society

The self-organizing behaviour of social animals and the self-organization of simple mathematical structures both suggest that self-organization should be expected in human society.

Tell-tale signs of self-organization are usually statistical properties shared with self-organizing physical systems (see Zipf's law, power law, Pareto principle).

Examples such as Critical Mass (bicycle), herd behaviour, groupthink and others, abound in sociology, economics, behavioral finance and anthropology.

In economics

In economics, a market economy is sometimes said to be self-organizing. Friedrich Hayek coined the term catallaxy to describe a "self-organizing system of voluntary co-operation," in regard to capitalism. Advocates of laissez-faire hold that a centrally-planned economy makes the system less organized and less efficient. By contrast, some socialist economists consider that market failures are so significant that self-organization produces bad results and that the state should direct production and pricing. Many economists adopt an intermediate position that and recommend a mixture of market economy and command economy characteristics (sometimes called a mixed economy).

In collective intelligence

Non-thermodynamic concepts of entropy and self-organization have been explored by many theorists. Cliff Joslyn and colleagues and their so-called "global brain" projects, and Marvin Minsky's "Society of Mind" idea, are examples of applications of these principles - see collective intelligence.

Donella Meadows, who codified twelve leverage points that a self-organizing system could exploit to organize itself, was one of a school of theorists who saw human creativity as part of a general process of adapting human lifeways to the planet and taking humans out of conflict with natural processes. See Gaia philosophy, deep ecology, ecology movement and Green movement for similar self-organizing ideals.


1 comment:

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